Rules of Thumb
  1. One ton of refrigeration equals the removal of 12,000 Btu/h of heat.
  2. CAt various temperature levels; 0 to 50F, use chilled brine and glycol solutions; -50 to 40F, ammonia, Freons, butane; -150 to -50F, ethane or propane.
  3. In single stage compression, the compression ratio is limited to about 4.
  4. In multistage compression, economy is improved with interstage flashing and recycling, ie: economiser operation.
  5. Absorption-refrigeration (employing ammonia to -30F, lithium bromide to 45F) is economical when waste steam is available at 12 psig or so.

H I N T S  A N D  R U L E S
Drying and Solids Conveyors for Particular Solids Cooling Towers Compressors and Vacuum Pumps Crushing and Grinding
Extraction, Liquid-Liquid Crystallatisation from Solution Filtration Heat Exchangers Mixing and Agitation
Particle Size Enlargement Piping Pumps Reactors Refrigeration
Reactors Size Seperation of Particles Utilities, Common Specifications Vessels (Storage Tanks) Size Seperation of Particles
C O N T A C T   G L Y D E